Category Archives: Sites

Stonehenge – Woodhenge (Part Three)




Part One and Two of this tryptych revealed an unexpected geometrical relationship between the location of Stonehenge and that of its sister henge monument, Woodhenge. Part Three now expands this new evidence. By comparing data from the megalithic landscape around Stonehenge/ Woodhenge with that from the megalithic landscape in and around the Preseli Hills of West Wales a new type of connection emerges, one that links the ‘bluestone’ culture of the Preseli Hills of West Wales with that of the Wessex culture, specifically the Stonehenge landscape shown above (but perhaps even Avebury and elsewhere). Continue reading

The English Lake District Stone Circles

A New Perspective

by Robin Heath


The large number of stone circles found in the English Lake District of Northern Britain are among the oldest known, Aubrey Burl suggesting that the construction of Castle Rigg, its most visited ring as being ‘around 3200 BC’ [Burl 1995]. Many of these circles are in fact non-circular and most of the survivors are very large – over 100 feet in diameter. Their design geometry includes many of the ‘flattened circle’ geometries first discovered by Alexander Thom, [Thom, 1967], and which he named Type A and Type B flattened circles.

The Type A’s perimeter shape is based on hexagonal geometry, whereas the Type B is based on the division of a diameter line by three, which can be understood as based on a vesica piscis construction. These two types of flattened circle are fundamentally different.  However, examples have been found where a definite geometrical change has made to the standard design. One example of this is the Type D flattened circle, whose geometry will be explained later.

This article focusses on the locations of the major Lake District circles and their relationship to other megalithic sites in Britain. It demonstrates that knowledge of Astronomy, Geometry and Metrology were all subjects that fell well within the capabilities of the circle builders.

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Stonehenge & Woodhenge – PART TWO


In Part One a single action began a process of investigation – I made a measurement of two physical realities. The first was the length of a line connecting Stonehenge centre to Woodhenge, centre, and the second was the angle of orientation that this line makes with respect to an east-west line, termed a co-azimuth angle. This second part of the article shows where that single action can lead a researcher into understanding presently unsuspected purposes within the designs of, in this case, Stonehenge and Woodhenge.

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Stonehenge & Woodhenge – A Lost Legacy – PART ONE


Soon after the distinguished Welsh archaeologist Maude Cunningham and her husband finished work excavating the site we now know as Woodhenge, in 1929, the locations of each of the site’s many revealed postholes were marked with grey concrete bollards. The best that can be said of this action was that it ensured their original exact positions were recorded for posterity (see Alexander Thom’s photograph below, from 1958, courtesy of Eoghann MacColl).

Visually, Woodhenge is neither a pretty nor an impressive site, unlike its nearest neighbour, Stonehenge, some 1.9 miles to the southwest. VIsitors to Woodhenge tend not to linger around this site, and soon slope off to nearby Durrington Walls, to the north, or Stonehenge, to the southwest. This article claims to lift the present Cinderella status afforded to this Neolithic class II henge and timber circle monument, by identifying a previously unrecognised significance in its geodetic placement with respect to Stonehenge.

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Interesting Factoids about Avebury + free PDF download.

Ten Interesting Factoids about Avebury

1. Avebury is the largest known stone circle anywhere, with a surrounding ditch and bank a mile in circumference

2. The centre of Avebury is placed 4/7ths of the distance between equator and pole, at latitude 360/7*

3. A very detailed and accurate seven station closed traverse survey was undertaken by Professor Alexander Thom in 1978.

4. Thom reported that the perimeter of the outer stone ring was 1302.5 Megalithic yards (MY) of 2.722 feet, which is 3545.4 feet or 520 Megalithic rods ( 1 MR = 2.5 MY).

5. The geometry of the ring is based on a circle 200MY in radius (544 feet/ 1.66m) with centre at point D, exactly 60 MY from C (see diagram above).

6. A 3-4-5 pythagorean triangle ABC of side lengths 30-40-50 MR (75, 100 and 125 MY) defined much of the geometry. From the corners of this triangle (the stones/markers have long gone) three of the various arcs that make up the outer ring were struck. Their radii and arc lengths are as follows:
From A, B and C, each radius 260 MY, define arc FG, from A, arc HG, from B, and arc ML, from C.
In addition, there were two longer arcs struck from outside of the ring, of length 750 MY, from points W and Z (not shown on diagram). The remaining part of the perimeter is based on the forming circle perimeter, whose diameter is 200 MY..

7. The two inner circles are each 125 MY in radius and are therefore as big as any other true circle known in Britain, and the same size as the massive Ring of Brogar in the Orkneys.

8. Avebury, unlike nearly all other stone rings, has CORNERS, which demarcate the arc lengths. Thom
showed that all the arc lengths are integral in Megalithic rods, and total 1302.5 MY (521 MR)

9. Avebury is a MESS. The ring was heavily vandalised in history, has a village built within and
without it, and a major road system has quartered it (see piccy below). Most of the stones were fallen
or missing in 1930. Only nine still stood. Despite this, Alexander Keiller and other archaeologists were able to locate the majority of the remaining stone holes in the chalk and restore much of the original monument, The geometry of the original ring has since been discovered by AlexanderThom.

10. When built, the outer stone ring contained either 98 or 99 stones, some weighing over 50 tons.

AVEBURY TOUR (compressed) 2017 PDF file of full report.

Equinoctial Stone row alignment (photo)

The Russia stones are three large (8ft) bluestone uprights, stonking great stones that were once part of a stone row marking to the Equinoctial (west – 270*)) sunset, part of a section of the Dinas Cross to Pontfaen road in the Preselis, near Russia (’tis true!), where the road markedly changes direction and traces the path of the alignment for about 470ft (170m). Two of remaining three upright stones are those stand in front of the sun’s disc in the distance. All other stones, some massive, now lie recumbent, buried in the bank, just as one can find at the minor standstill moonset ‘detector’ (301.4*) at Parc y Meirw (Field of the Dead) stone row on the Llanychaer road, about a mile away. Prehistoric precision astronomy at its best in Preseli, with photographs of the event…read on!

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Original 2009 theodolite survey (‘Preseli Vesica’) [PDF download – free of charge]

Surveying at Llech y Drybedd in June 2009.

Here is a tarted up version of the first geodetic survey around Pentre Ifan and Carningli, in spring 2009. This first saw the light of cyberspace on the skyandlandscape (SL) website. The survey was undertaken with a Wild T16 theodolite, pegs, GPS device and tapes, and it revealed a complex isometric (equal lengths) megalithic structure across the eastern flank of Carningli mountain. The corner ‘points’ of two back-to back equilateral triangles were each marked with significant and large well known prehistoric monuments.

Read on! The PDF is free to go for students, megalithomaniacs, and even archaeologists (for non-commercial use only and the source must be credited). The whole story of this survey is told in a fully illustrated colour book Bluestone Magic – a Guide to the Megalithic Monuments of West Wales, available from this website (see books section for details as to how this book can be rapidly be found landing on your doormat).


Secrets of Carningli Triangle

Photos of the Models Demonstrating Triangles at Launch Event

These are photos of a large plywood model, and proper hemp corded string. I like the lighting on them and they get the message across in four photographs. People will, of course need to understand that the Station stone rectangle contains an inherent lunation triangle, similarly constructed in units of either one or 8 megalithic yards (an eight year or a one year count respectively) of 2.722 feet, and that its dimensions are 40, 96 and 104 MY.


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Got those Preseli Blues, everybody’s talkin’, ‘bout those Preseli Blues’ from Those ol’ Preseli Blues‘, recorded by Bettws y Smith, and the Bluestones (Paramount, 1923)

It appears you can get away with almost anything in contemporary archaeology. One can for once agree with Jacquetta Hawkes who reckoned that ‘Every generation gets the Stonehenge it deserves’. In this generation one may gain permission to dig the hallowed turf of Stonehenge itself provided you have a theory that is zeitgeisty enough to woo the public. But does it hold water?

I am, of course, talkin’ ‘bout my gg..g..g.eneration of archaeologists, the Geoffrey Wainwright Experience, with Geoffrey himself on Mediaphone, accompanied by Tim Darvill on Vibes. Their opening track? “Cutting the First Sods for 50 Years at Stonehenge”

Compared with anything that has gone before in recent Stonehenge history, this ‘New Improved’ theory of why the bluestones were so important to the builders of Britain’s National Temple must appear as pure affrontery to ‘the lunatic fringe of dotty archaeology’, who have always thought that, free from the dogma that lurks in academic disciplines, they had sole rights to investigate whatever questions they liked on archaeological matters. In an apparent surge of ‘if you can’t beat them, join them’ mainstream archaeology now boldly appears to be straying into traditional loony fringe territory. We must welcome them – they may be healed by the process. The media love it, of course, fawning all over the two heroes of this piece of Stonehenge ‘science’. It is the perfect media story. Stonehenge sells – and is thus like a magnet to the media. Everyone knows about Stonehenge (except they don’t really know very much about it at all), it’s a World Heritage Site and it attracts nearly a million visitors a year who all come, pay their £5, and then learn very little about it. Despite all this brouhaha, the monument retains its title as one of the best solstice detectors in the known world.

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